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Effects of Multi Vitamin and Mineral Supplement on Memory By Dr Tori Hudson, ND

You have likely heard the news…  study was published in May 2023, called the Cocoa Supplement and Multivitamin Outcomes Study Web. This study included 3,562 older adults. Individuals were randomly assigned to a daily multivitamin supplement or placebo and evaluated annually with a battery of neuropsychological tests over a three-year period.

The commercial supplement for adults 50 and older contains:

Amount Per Serving% Daily Value
Vitamin A (40% as Beta-Carotene)750 mcg83%
Vitamin C60 mg67%
Vitamin D325 mcg (1000 IU)125%
Vitamin E22.5 mg150%
Vitamin K30 mcg25%
Calcium220 mg17%
Phosphorus20 mg2%
Iodine150 mcg100%
Magnesium50 mg12%
Zinc11 mg100%
Selenium19 mcg35%
Copper0.5 mg56%
Manganese2.3 mg100%
Chromium50 mcg143%
Thiamin1.5 mg125%
Riboflavin1.7 mg131%
Niacin20 mg125%
Vitamin B63 mg176%
Folate (400 mcg Folic Acid)667 mcg DFE167%
Vitamin B1225 mcg1,042%
Biotin30 mcg100%
Pantothenic Acid10 mg200%
Molybdenum45 mcg100%
Chloride72 mg3%
Potassium80 mg2%
Lutein250 mcg*
Lycopene300 mcg*

The stated primary outcome measure was a change in episodic memory, defined as immediate recall performance on the ModRey test, after one year of the supplement or placebo. The secondary outcome measure included changes in episodic memory over three years of follow-up as well as changes in the performance on the neuropsychological tests.

Participants who took the multivitamin supplementation had significantly better ModRey immediate recall at one year as well as over the three years. There were no changes in episodic memory, performance on the tasks, object recognition, or executive function. The researchers estimated that the effect of the multivitamin intervention and memory improvement over placebo was equivalent to 3.1 years of age-related memory change.


I don’t think it gets much simpler and safer than this; a simple multivitamin that can delay age-related memory changes. This does not mean dementia prevention or Alzheimer’s disease treatment, but rather a safe strategy to slow age-related cognitive decline.

There are many ingredients in a multivitamin formula so one might ask if one or more is having a greater effect than others. The answer is, we don’t know, but likely. Strong contenders would be the antioxidants and the B vitamins.


Yeung L, Alschuler T, Hale C, et al. Multivitamin supplementation improves memory in older adults: A randomized clinical trial. America Journal Clinical Nutrition. May 2023